Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Chapter 1: The Universe at a glance - The fundamentals


Setting up the fundamental equations

Looped strings as constituent of Dark Energy

Open strings as constituent of Dark Energy

Energy density of activated strings in restframe1

Timescale of Dark Energy

Looped and open strings in the same universe

The magnitude of energy densities

Curvature of the universe

Event Horizons

Chapter 2 Matter and Spacetime

Energy field of a mass

Spacetime cavity

Looped and open strings vs energy field radius of a mass

Chapter 3: Extra Dimensions and Their Role in the Universe


Looped string extra dimension objects

a) Pulsating extra dimension cylinders

b) Orbiting extra dimension cylinders

Open string extra dimension objects

a) Magnetic Monopole

b) Tubular Monopole – Charge

c) Photon

d) Attachment of 2D open strings to activated looped strings

Chapter 4: Fundamental Particles and Standard Model at String Level







Higgs Boson


Relationship of a charge and magnetic monopole

Chapter 5: Dark Matter

Activated looped strings - Dark matter structure at string level

Energy-momentum in the universe

Activated open strings

Chapter 6: Gravity

Activated looped strings

Coordinates of the curvature of spacetime of a macro-mass and its quantum gravity

Classical Newtonian gravity

Chapter 7: Electromagnetic forces

Activated open strings

Coulomb’s law

Comparison of gravity and electromagnetic force

Chapter 8: Creation and regeneration of activated three-dimensional strings

E-loop string

Three-dimensional looped strings


E-portals and singularity

Activated three-dimensional open strings

Propagation of two-dimensional looped strings

Propagation of two-dimensional open strings

Quantum entanglement of particles

String tension

Regeneration of activated open strings

Regeneration of activated looped strings

Chapter 9: Strings, Entropy, and Temperature

Chapter 10: Blackholes

Structure and gravity at string level

Entropy and temperature

Magnetic Monopoles

Blackholes and the universe

Information and blackholes

Final space transformation

Chapter 11: Strings and Time


Time and string resistance forces

Weak and Strong interactions

Resistance force on a mass

String resistance force and wave properties

String resistance force and Blackholes

Strings and expansion of the universe

Number of dimensions in the universe

Chapter 12: A brief overview of the Big Bang

Closing Remarks

Selected References